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경납은 납재를 사용하여 모재를 가능한 한 용융시키지 않고 행하는 용접 방법입니다.

Overview

“Brazing Materials is a welding method using"

solder not to meit basic materials as possible. Therefore it has follwing merits and has been widely used in each field.

Brazing Materials : Merits

  • 01Clear joint through dispersion
  • 02Applicable to precision electronics components of thin film and fine wire.
  • 03Applicable to electric donnection and heat exchanger due to its complete heat and electric conductivity.
  • 04It is possible to seal to make pressure vessel or vacuum sealing.
  • 05It makes convenient one-throughput processing for multi-joints.
  • 06Step brazing for complex casting.
  • 07Very little change of dimension or transformation compared to welding.
  • 08Very clear finshing to give second treatments.
  • 09Possible to joint different materials, as well as non-metallic component of Ceramic.
  • 10It can be melted dependent on the reheating of brazing part.

Brazing Materials : Principles

경납의 원리 도식

Types - Phosphate-Copper Filler Metal

Phosphate-Copper Filler Metal

인동납의 개요 사진

Phosphate-Copper Filler Metal is a one to decrease the melting point by adding phosphate to copper and having Self Fluxing effect for copper basic material. It is possible to improve the processing and dispersing capacity, to decrease the melting point, and promote the flexibility by adding Ag and Sn to Copper-Phosphate alloy. So this Phosphate-Copper Filler Metal has good mechanical strength and corrosion resistance that it is widely used in copper and copper alloy of vessels and heat exchanger.

Alloy and Physical Properties

Alloy Composition(%) Remark(℃)
P Ag Cu Zn Other Solidus Liquidus
BCuP1 4.8-5.3 - Rem   0.2Max 710 925
BCuP2 6.8-7.5 - Rem   0.2Max 710 795
BCuP-3S 6.3-6.7 2.8-3.2 Rem   0.2Max 645 795
BCuP3 5.8-6.7 4.8-5.2 Rem   0.2Max 645 815
BCuP4 6.8-7.7 5.8-6.2 Rem   0.2Max 645 720
BCuP5 4.8-5.3 14.5-15.5 Rem   0.2Max 645 800
BCuP6 6.8-7.2 1.8-2.2 Rem   0.2Max 645 790
SB1 5.8-6.8 1.3-1.7 Rem   0.2Max 640 760
SB2 6.0-7.0 1.8-2.2 Rem   0.2Max 644 740
SB3 5.8-6.2 0.8-2.2 Rem   0.2Max 644 813
SB5 5.8-6.2 1.8-2.2 Rem 4.5-5.5 0.2Max 630 675

Types - Silver Filler Metal

Silver Filler Metal

은납의 개요 사진

Silver Filler Metal is a typical Brazing Materials, its main components are Ag, Cu, and Zn, and it is also added that Cd, Ni, Sn, Mn, and In by its usages. It is possible to manufacture by customer specific order besides the followings.


Alloy and Physical Properties

Alloy Composition(%) Remark(℃)
Ag Cu Zn Cd Other Solidus Liquidus
BAg-1 45 15 16 24   605 620
45 15 16 24   605 620
BAg-1A 50 15.5 16.5 18   625 635
BAg-2 35 26 21 18   605 700
BAg-3 50 15.5 15.5 16 Ni3 630 690
BAg-4 40 30 28   Ni2 670 780
BAg-5 45 30 25     665 745
BAg-6 50 34 16     690 775
BAg-7 56 22 17   Sn5 620 650
BAg-7A 45 27 25   Sn3 640 680
BAg-7B 34 36 27   Sn3 630 730
BAg-8 72 28       780 780
BAg-13A 56 42     Ni2 715 850
BAg-18 60 30     Sn10 600 720
BAg-20 30 38 32     675 765
BAg-20A 25 41 34     700 800
BAg-21 63 28.5     Ni2.5 Sn6 690 800
BAg-24 50 20 28   Ni2 660 705
HS-75 75 20 5     732 774
HS-70 70 20 10     725 750
HS-60 60 23 17     673 693
H-50 50 20 15 10 Ni2 Mn3 637 717
HS-49 49 16 23   Ni4.5 Mn7.5 685 705
HS-49D 49 27.5 20.5   Ni0.5 Mn2.5 670 690
HS-48 48 28 19   Sn5 625 680
SBAG-3 48 15.5 16.5 14 Ni2 Mn4 610 660
HS-481 48 28 19   Sn5 625 680
HS-451 45 25 25   In5 650 690
HS-452 45 26 21   Ni3 In5 665 685
HS-453 45 25 25   Sn5 620 690
HS-454 45 22 25   Ni2 Mn1 In5 635 700
HS-401 40 30 25   In5 635 715
HS-40A 40 30 30     640 710
HS-402 40 30 28   Sn2 640 700
H-40 40 19 21 20   595 630
H-40A 40 19.5 19.5 19 Ni2 605 620
HS-35A 35 32 33     696 758
HS-351 35 35 30     675 750
H-34 34 22 24.5 19.5   610 650
HS-331 33 38 27   Sn2 642 760
H-32 31.5 34 15.5 19   627 754
HS-301 30 38 27   In5 640 755
HS-30A 30 36.8 32   In1.2 675 760
HS-302 30 37 32   Sn1 690 760
H-30 30 27 23 20   607 710
H-301 30 28 21 21   600 690
H-29 29 28 20 23   600 675
H-27 27 30 20 23   600 730
HS-251 25 43 32     766 785
HS-254 25 40 34   Sn1 740 787
H-25 25 35 27 13   610 745
H-251 25 35 20 20   620 720
H-20 20 45 30 5   616 816
H-201 20 40 25 15   605 765
HS-74S 74 26       780 785
HS-68 68 32       780 785

Types - Cd Free Group

Cd Free Group

Cd Free계의 개요 사진
  • 01BAg-5 Type(Ag-Cu-Zn 3 Elements)
  • 02BAg-4 Type(Ag-Cu-Zn-Ni 4 Elements)
  • 03BAg-7 Type(Ag-Cu-Zn-Sn 4 Elements)
  • 045 Elements(Ag-Cu-Zn-In-Mn)

Cd-Free (without cadmium)

It has been widely used in each industry as well electronics that BAg-1, BAg-1A, BAg-2 and BAg-3 out of 10 types internationally standardized Silver Filler Metals, but it contains much amount of cadmium (Cd) of 15~20%. Therefore our reseachers developed Cd-Free Silver Filler Metal more safe and excellent than existing one to solve safety problems caused by heavy metal cadmium pollution.

Cd-Free Silver Filler Series

Alloy Composition(%) Melting Point(℃)
Ag Cu Zn Sn In other Solidus Liquidus
50% Ag BAG-7 56 22 17 5     620 650
BAG-6 50 34 16       690 775
HS-451 45 25 25   5   650 690
HS-452 45 26 21   5 Ni3 665 685
HS-454 45 22 25   5 Ni2 Mn1 635 700
HS-501 50 30 15 5     665 690
45% Ag BAG-5 45 30 25   5   675 745
HS-401 40 30 25       635 715
HS-455 45 25 30       670 700
40% Ag BAG-4 40 30 28     Ni2 670 780
HS-23 40 30.5 29.5       621 732
HS-34 40 40 20 2     697 795
HS-402 40 30 28       640 700
HS-403 40 30 29   1   662 717
35% Ag HS-301 30 38 27   5   640 755
HS-351 35 35 30       675 750
HS-352 35 30 25 2   Mn8 690 720
HS-353 35 30 30     Mn5 690 730
HS-331 33 38 27 2     642 760
HS-341 34 35 30   1   667 750
HS-355 35 32 31 2     660 740
30% Ag HS-302 30 37 32 1 1   670 760
HS-25 30 38 32   1   695 766
HS-291 29 39 31     Mn3 Sil 670 760
25% Ag HS-251 25 43 32       760 785

Recommednation of Cd-Free Silver Filler Series

specification HS301 HS302 HS331
Composition Ag : 30 Ag : 30 Ag : 33
Cu : 38 Cu : 37 Cu : 38
Zn : 27 Zn : 32 Zn : 27
In : 5 Sn : 1 Sn : 2
Physical Properties M. P. 640~755 ℃ 690~760℃ 642~760℃
Brazing Temp. 755~880℃ 760~890 760~880℃
Specific Gravity 8.64 8.61 8.73
Tensile Strength 40 kg/㎟ 30 kg/㎟ 35kg/㎟
Elasticity 15% 12% 14
Applicable Metal Cu, Cu alloy, Stainless Steel, Fe alloy
Color after Brazing White color
Characteristics of
Cd-Free filler
1) It is fee of Cd, replacing the fluidity of Cd with those of In, Sn to provide low melting point and rich flow (fluidity) and corrosion resistance.
2) As it has tendency not to be melted if heating slowly at the above-shown melting point range, it is recommended to heat quickly.

Types - Special Complex Silver Filler Metal

Special Complex Silver Filler Metal(Hand metal Sandwich type)

특수 복합 은납재 사진
  • 01Sandwich Type solder featured
  • 02Crack type after welding
  • 03Components of silver hardmetal분
  • 04Production Dimension
  • 05Hard metal & Heat coefficient of thermal expansion

Properties of Sandwich Type solder, which solving the hard metal welding problem

When hard metal is welded to the surface of steel with wide welding surface, hardmetal part may be broken in time of cooling contraction since it is different the coefficient of thermal expansion of basic material and hardmetal. To protect this crack and endure the hard impact and load in using device it must be used the [Sandwich Type] special Silver Filler Metal material containing pure copper layer within it. Because [Sandwich Type] special Silver Filler Metal material prevents the breakage of hardmetal in welding complex material and has sufficient resistance to the load and thermal stress.

Crack Shape after Welding

Cd Free계의 개요 사진

Components of Silver Handmetal

Product Name Chemical Components(wt%) Reference Value(‘C) Application
Ag Cu Zn Cd Ni Mn Solidus Liquidus Operating Temperature
BAg-3/Cu-D 50 15.5 15.5 16 3   630 690 690-750 Hardmetal Brazing for the carbide tip for carbon steel and steel
HS-49D/Cu-D 49 27.5 20.5   0.5 2.5 670 690 690-750

Production Dimension

생산규격 사진

Hard metal & the coefficient of themal expansion

the coefficient of thermal expansion(650'C) Hard metal high-speed steel carbon steel
WC-Co Group WC-TiC-Co Group
X10-6/℃ 4.5-5.5 0.4-7.2 12.0-12.6 14.7

Type - Gold Brazing Filter Metal

Gold Brazing Filler Metal

Corrosion & Acidification Resisfance

Product Name Chemical Components (wt%) Reference Value (℃) Application
Au Cu Ni Ag Other element Solidus Liquidus Operating Temperature
BAu-1 37.0-38.0   - - < 0.15 990 1015 1015-1095 Resistance to Corrosion, acidification, and oxidation. High vacuum condition, Fe, Ni, Co alloy Step Brazing Missile, Z-engine
BAu-2 79.5-80.5   - - < 0.15 890 890 890-1010
BAu-3 34.5-35.5   2.5-3.5 - < 0.15 975 1030 1030-1090
BAu-4 81.5-82.5 -   - < 0.15 950 950 950-1005
BAu-11 49.5-50.5   - - < 0.15 955 970 970-1020
BAu-12 74.5-75.5   - 12.0-13.0 < 0.15 880 895 895-950

Gold Brazing alloy

Product
Name
Chemical Components (wt%) Reference Value (℃) Application
Au Ag Pd Added
element
Other
element
Solidus Liquidus Operating Temperature
BAu-58.3 58.3 14.5   Rem < 0.15 720 760 760-850 Jewellry용,
Karat Au, SUS 등
BAu-58.5 58.5   3 Rem < 0.15 975 1020 1020-1100
BAu-66.7 66.7 11.0   Rem < 0.15 730 760 760-850
BAu-75A 75 5.5   Rem < 0.15 750 800 800-900

Requirements

Application Strength Electric Conduc-
-tivity
Thermal Conduc-
-tivity
Thermal Resistance Corrosion Resistance Color Tone Toxicity
  I  
n
d
u
s
t
r
i
a
l
Aerospace      
Electronics    
General          
Ornament Industry        
Medical Industry        

Palladium Dimension

Product Name Chemical Components (wt%) Reference Value (℃) Application
Pd Ag Cu Mn Ni Other element Solidus Liquidus Opera-
-ting Tempe-
-rature
BPd-1 4.5-5.5 68-69 26-27 - - < 0.15 805 810 810-900 Stainless steel, heat resisting steel, Ni / Co alloy Mo, W, Ti
or Al containing precipitation alloy of heat resisting material and electronic tube
BPd-2 9.5-10.5 58-59 31-32 - - < 0.15 825 850 850-950
BPd-4 14.5-15.5 64.5-65.6 19.5-20.5 - - < 0.15 850 900 900-1000
BPd-6 24.5-25.5 53.5-54.5 20.5-21.5 - - < 0.15 900 950 950-1050
BPd-7 4.5-5.5 94.5-95.5 - - - < 0.15 970 1010 1010-1100
BPd-9 19.5-20.5 74.5-75.5 - 4.5-5.5 - < 0.15 1000 1120 1120-1200
BPd-10 32.5-33.5 63.5-64.5 - 2.5-3.5 - < 0.15 1180 1200 1200-1300
BPd-11 20.5-21.5 - - 30.5-31.5 47.5-48.5 < 0.15 1120 1120 1120-1200
BPd-12 19.5-20.5 - 54.5-55.5 9.5-10.5 14.5-15.5 < 0.15 1060 1110 1100-1200
BPd-14 59.5-60.5 - - - 39.5-40.5 < 0.15 1235 1235 1235-1320

Dimension - Dimension

Morphology & Processing Dimension

사진

Possible to manufacture other dimension besides the dimension table for Bag-group and BCuP-group.
ex) Flat, Square Type


Group Item Dimension
BAG Group BCuP Group
WIRE Line Diameter > 0.3 Φ > 0.8 Φ
ROD Length 500L, 1000L (by dimension) 500L, 1000L (by dimension)
Line Diameter > 0.8 Φ > 0.8 Φ
Ring Line Diameter > 0.4 Φ > 0.8 Φ
Inner diameter 4 folds for line diameter 4 folds for line diameter
Tape Thickness > 0.06 t > 0.1 t
Width > 0.8w > 0.8w
Washer Thickness Specific Dimension -
Outer diameter Specific Dimension
Inner diameter Specific Dimension

Dimension - Recommends

Recommends

사진
    Example: Attachment for basic material and Solder
  • 01A Good
  • 02B Available, but rarely used
  • 03C Bad
  • 04D Unavailable
Brazing Solder \ basic
material
Mg
Al
loy
Al
Al
loy
Cu Cu
Al
loy
Ag
Al
loy
Au
Al
loy
C-
Steel
Stain
less
steel
Cemen
ted
Car
bides
Ni
Al
loy
Co
Al
loy
Ti
Al
loy
W Mo Tan
tal
Touch
Brazing
Ag-Cu D D A A B B B B B B B C B B C
Ag-Cu-Zn D D A A A B A A A A B C A A C
Ag-Cu-Zn-Cd(Ni) D D A A A B A A A A B C A A C
Cu-P-Ag D D A A A B C C C C C C B B C
Atomspare
in Furance
Ag-Cu D D A A B B B A B A B B B B B
Ag-Cu-Zn D D A A A B A A A A B C B B C
Ag-Cu-Zn-Cd(Ni) D D A A A B A A A A B C B B C
Cu-P-Ag D D A A A B C C C C C C B B C
Vacuum Ag-Cu D D A A B B B A B A B B B B C
Ag-Cu-Zn D D C C C C C C C C C C C C B
Ag-Cu-Zn-Cd(Ni) D D C C C C C C C C C C C C C
Cu-P-Ag D D B B B B C C C C C C B B C
High
frequency
Ag-Cu D D A A B B B A B A B B C B C
Ag-Cu-Zn D D A A A B A A A A B B A A C
Ag-Cu-Zn-Cd(Ni) D D A A A B A A A A B B A A C
Cu-P-Ag D D A A A B C C C C C C B B C

Processing

Wire type Brazing Materials

Wire형 경납의 제품공정 그림

Tape type Brazing Materials

Tape형 경납의 제품공정 그림

Tech.Data - Precautions in Designing

Precautions in Designing Coeffcient

  • 01Consider the flow of lead.
  • 02Make the outlet for Flux and Gas.
  • 03Give moderate heat.
  • 04Maintain the appropriated interval in Brazing.
  • 05Do make higher strength for coefficient than the lowest strength of basic material.
  • 06Avoid the shear strength concentration as possible.

Welding Interval

Brazing uses the phenomenon to fill the brazing interval by the capillary and absorbance of molten lead, and this interval is one of the important factors since it influences on the joint strength in future.

Lead Basic Material
Copper Copper alloy Carbon steel
Cu-Pb - - -
Lead brass 0.07 ~ 0.38 0.07 ~ 0.33 0.05 ~ 0.25
Phosphate-Copper Filler Metal 0.05 ~ 0.25 0.07 ~ 0.38 -
Silver Filler Metal 0.05 ~ 0.38 0.05 ~ 0.33 0.02 ~ 0.15

Tech.Data - Procedures

Select right box to see the detailed dimension for its type     

Brazing Processing

사진

Brazing is composed of Brazing and lead clearance, preprocessing, Heating, Clearance after Brazing, and Post processing.


Preprocessing of Brazing

It is required to maintain the heater JIG and fixing tool by determining the basic material, morphology, dimension and brazing method for application before brazing. It must be used the proper JIG and fixing tool of refractories, ceramics, graphite, and heat resisting steel by brazing temperature or brazing method. Preprocessing is important Because the clearance of joint surface influences on the quality of molten lead and joint strength.

Metal Surface Requirements for Brazing

Joint must be the clear one of metal surface to sufficiently show the wetting with weak flux.
Flux is for separating or melting oxidation film and preventing oxidation from heating, and it must not to be contaminated with dust and fingerprint as follows
따라서


  • 01dust or mote
  • 02oil, grease, fingerprint
  • 03each kind of chemicals such as carbonic chemicals.

Removing

  • 01Chemical removing by such acid washing
  • 02Mechanical removing (Wire Brush, Sand Paper, Blast)

Brazing Processing

사진

Brazing is composed of Brazing and lead clearance, preprocessing, Heating, Clearance after Brazing, and Post processing.


Heating, Brazing

Melting lead is an essential process in Brazing and it is very important to match this melting methods to the working condition and the joint application. Temperature must be evenly elevated, and warming-up process is also required until it reaches to the very below temperature of Solidus temperature for using lead. It is recommended to raise the temperature from this point to working point as fast as possible. Then convert to the cooling process when the lead is started to flow for preventing overheating. Avoid rapid cooling. There are many brazing methods and heating process to adjust this propose. Followings are Heating methods.

Heating Methods

Flame Welding
Heating Method Gas Brazing Touch Brazing Burner Brazing
Fuel Types : City Gas, acetylene propane, ethylene
hydrogen, alcohol
Features <Merit>
① Simply workable with seeing
② Usable most materials and shapes
③ Local / whole Heating
④ Butt Brazing, Seaming Brazing.
<Demerit>
① Requiring Flux.
② Must be skillful.
③ Generating oxidation Scale.
④ Large Heat Transformation.
Points ① Heating from the outside of Brazing part to the center of it.
② Uniformly heating with slow and large flame for the one with high thermal capacity.
③ Rapid brazing with small flame in case of the one with low thermal capacity.
④ Heating heavy one of high thermal capacity first.

Environment Welding Furnace Welding
Heating Method Heating under the maintained environment with reducing gas and inactive gas by blocking the air-circulation
Electrical or flame Heating by adding brazing material which is set on the furnace
Features <Merit>
① Good cracking resistance, less transformation, and strip finishing capacity due to the whole heating.
② Easy temperature control, small thermal modification width.
③ Multi-brazing, mass production
④ Without Post Processing
<Demerit>
① Need large facility
② Size restriction.
③ Inappropriate for the material containing elements with high vapor tension such as Cd and Zn.
Points ① Precise control of furnace environment.
② Be careful for selection and assembly of welding solder.
③ Complete temperature control.
④ Complete change of hydrogen gas in starting and finishing of hydrogen furnace.

High Frequency Welding
Features <Merit>
① High thermal efficiency, high speed heating.
② Local heating, uniform Heating.
③ Brazing with using environment.
<Demerit>
① Need appropriate coil for the shape of welding material.
② Not for complex shape.
③ Not for the whole heating of large sized welding material.
Points ① Brazing point is significantly dependent on the quality of Coil.
② It is efficient to transverse and move the brazing material for cracking.

Brazing Post Processing

사진

There are post processing and cleaning for each surface condition as the following processes after Brazing.


Post Processing Flux Removing

In case of brazing which uses Flux, it must be washed for removing special Flux. Because this Flux remainders has strong corrosive capacity to wear out the coefficient resulted in raising down the Corrosion Resistance. Residual Flux dissolved in warm water can be removed by accumulating and rubbing. It is also applicable that the acid solution (R.T.) (10% oleic acid solution or 5 ~10% phosphoric acid) when residual flux may be removed easily. In this time, it is to be neutralized the acid with alkali such as weak ammonia solution, sufficiently washed, and dried. In addition it must be avoided the re-melting of lead with considering the m.p. of lead (solidus temperature) if it is required to heat after Brazing.

Tech.Data - Choosing Considerations

Choosing Considerations

사진

Brazing should be selected by considering the working condition, the operational environment and usages of basic material, and economics, in particular, the followings must be remembered.


Economic

For Silver Filler Metal, it is more economics the amount of silver is lesser, but the decrease of silver may cause the problems related to m.p. and flexibility, as well as Corrosion Resistance, electrical conductivity, and mechanical features. Therefore it must be considered the operating condition of Brazing Joint and workability. Moreover, it must be reliable that the silver content control which is the most important factor of quality and prime cost.

Melting Point

The lower to better. If m.p is high its operating Temperature becomes also high, which results in transformation and flaming of basic material.

M.P Range

It's better that the temperature difference between liquid phase and solid is lesser, and it must be decreased as the interval between basic materials becomes to be shallow. If the temperature difference is large, it is difficult to work for the elution of partial melting.

Flexibility and Dispersion

It means the flowing property of solder in working, and this may be changed by the compatibility of basic material, Heating method, environmental temperature, and selected FLUX.

Mechanical Property

It is required to review the tensile strength, shear strength, electric conductivity, corrosion resistance and Arc resistance, and it must be determined that the selection of solder, the property of basic material, and Joint design. It's not a simple process.

Other

For vacuum and environmental brazing, a vapor pressure is to be a critical factor. It should be used as the alloy the Sn and In instead of easily volatile elements Cd and Zn, and also considered the processing and color.

Tech.Data - Certificates

Certificates

사진
    The following certificates are required in approving Construction Company.
  • - Business Registration Certificate
  • - Factory Registration Certificate
  • - Each kind of Certificate of JIS and ISO for Phosphate-Copper Filler Metal
  • - Analysis Result by Certified Organization
승인서류 사진
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