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백금족은 Glass공업에 사용되고 있는 Pt 및 Pt합금의 장치와 기구들입니다.

Overview

“Highly Mechanical and Electrical Featured Platinum Products"

Pt-Products Alloy is the general name for Pt, Pd, Ir, Rh, Os and Ru. There are natural Pt (Natural Alloy between Pt-Products elements), sulfides, and arsenide which produced as natural form of Pt-proucts ore. The former is a one which is secondaril accumulated onto the sand drift ore after weathering the disperison out of ultrabasic rocks, and produced accompanying with Cr and olicine, The latter is produced in copper-nickel sulfide deposits.

Since it is used in Glass for long time under high temperature that Pt/Pt-alloy devices and equipments for Glass industry. It has been used proper materials for each purpose in considering the problems of contents of glass, contamination form refractories, glass colorization, bubble generation, wetting and Pt elution, and as well as the mechanical and electrical properties in high temperature, oxidation, and evporation.

Elementary
Symbol
Atomic
Number
M.P.(℃) Density (g/㎤) Heat
Conductivity
(Wm-1 K-1)
Pt 78 1,769 21.45 72
Rh 45 1,963 12.42 150
Pd 45 1,555 12.01 76
Ru 44 2,333 12.37 105
Ir 77 2,447 22.56 147
Os 76 3,033 22.59 87

Types - Crucibles

Crucibles

도가니류

Crucible basides Standard

규격외 도가니

Dish-type Crucible

접시형 도가니

Special Crucible

특수형 도가니

Types - Bushing

Bushing

부싱

Types - Glass Dissolving System

Glass Dissolving System

  • 01Glass dissolving for each kind of optical lenses.
  • 02FRIT GLASS dissolving
  • 03It is possible to customized-produce eletric furnace.

Pt apparatus for Cathode Ray Tube

Glass 음극 선관용 백금장치

각종 교반기류

액정 Glass 백금장치의 예

Types - Thermo Couple

Thermo Couple

If there is a temperature difference in conductor, it causes the difference of the concentration of conductive electron, which results in electric potential difference between the both terminal of conductor. This electric potential difference is varied from the type of conductor and the degree of temperature. It is called thermo couple the thermometer to apply this principle.

ASSEMBLY

열전대의 종류 ASSEMBLY 제품(내장형)

SEEBECK EFFECT

SEEBECK EFFECT

SEEBECK EFFECT by conductor type

도체에 따른 SEEBECK EFFECT

Dimension - Crucibles

Pt Crucible with Cover

뚜껑이 있는 백금 도가니
No. Capacity
(cc)
Diameter
D1
(㎜)
Low
Diameter
D2
(㎜)
Height
H (㎜)
Crucible
main body
gr.
Whole
gr
1010C 10 25 (15) 27 8 10
1015C 10 28 (17) 31 12 15
1020C 20 32 (19) 34 16 20
1025C 25 34 (20) 38 20 25
1030C 30 36 (22) 40 24 30
1040C 40 41 (25) 45 33 40
1050C 50 44 (27) 47 42 50

Pt Crucible without Cover

뚜껑이 없는 백금 도가니
No. Capacity
(cc)
Diameter
D1
(㎜)
Low
Diameter
D2
(㎜)
Height H
(㎜)
Crucible
main body
gr
10152 15 28 (17) 31 12
10153 15 28 (17) 31 13
10155 15 28 (17) 31 15
10206 20 32 (19) 34 16
10208 20 32 (19) 34 18
10200 20 32 (19) 34 20
10250 25 34 (20) 38 20
10252 25 34 (20) 38 22
10255 25 34 (20) 38 25
10304 30 36 (22) 40 24
10305 30 36 (22) 40 25
10306 30 36 (22) 40 26
10308 30 36 (22) 40 28
10300 30 36 (22) 40 30
10502 50 44 (27) 47 42

Minute Crucible

微小 도가니
No. Capacity
(cc)
Diameter
D1
(㎜)
Low
Diameter
D2
(㎜)
Height H
(㎜)
Crucible
main body
gr
140001 0.05 5 5 2.5 Og12
140002 0.1 5 5 5 Og20

Dimension - Crucible basides Standard

Pt /Pt-alloy

Pt 또는 Pt합금의 형태
No. Capacity
(cc)
Diameter
D1
(㎜)
Height H
(㎜)
Crucible
main body
gr
11000 100 50 60 100
11500 150 55 70 150
12000 200 60 75 200
13000 300 70 80 700
14000 400 80 80 1,100

Thick Crucible

두꺼운 도가니
No. Capacity
(cc)
Note
14120 120 No cover
14200 200 No cover
14250 250 No cover
14300 300 No cover
14350 350 No cover
14400 400 No cover
14500 500 No cover
14600 600 No cover

Dimension - Dish-Type Crucible

Pt Dish-Type

Pt접시형
No. Capacity
(cc)
Diameter
D1
(㎜)
Low
Diameter
D2
(㎜)
Height
H (㎜)
Crucible
main body
gr.
Floor
gr
20350 35 50 (45) 25 20 (100)
20505 50 60 (54) 28 25 (120)
20507 50 60 (54) 28 27 (120)
20750 75 65 (59) 30 30 (130)
20905 90 70 (63) 35 35 (140)
20900 90 70 (63) 35 40 (140)
21000 100 75 (68) 36 40 (150)
21005 100 75 (68) 36 45 (150)
21508 150 80 (72) 38 48 (160)
21505 150 80 (72) 38 55 (160)
22005 200 90 (81) 45 75 (180)

Optical Crucible

광학용 도가니
No. Diameter
D1
(㎜)
Height
H (㎜)
Note
G1001 20 380 Up to D=200
G1002 25.4 490 t=0.8~1.0mm
G1003 32 380  
G1004 73 200  
G1005 78 200  

Pt Boat

백금 Boat
No. Upper
Length
(㎜)
Upper
Hood
(㎜)
Height
H (㎜)
Knob
Length
(㎜)
Whole
(gr)
30500 50 10 10 8 6
30600 60 11 10 10 8
30700 70 12 13 12 15
30800 80 15 15 15 20
30900 90 18 15 20 25
31000 100 20 15 20 30

Dimension - Special Crucible

Single Crystal Growth

단결정 성장용
No. Capacity
(cc)
Diameter
D1
(㎜)
Height
H (㎜)
Height
h(㎜)
Angle
(s)
16150 8.5 25 30 13 86
16160 16 25 45 13 86

XRF Analysis

XRF 분석용
No. Capacity
(cc)
Weight
(gr)
17030 25 30
17032 25 32

V-type Crucible

V저 도가니

Dimension - Thermo Couple

Products & Dimension

SYMBOL COMPOSITION CHARACTERISTIC
+ - CLASS SPECIFICATION
(mm)
상용/과열
사용한도(℃)
B PtRh 30% PtRh 6% 2.3 2.0 ~ 0.05 1500/1700
R PtRh 13% Pt 1.2 2.0 ~ 0.03 1400/1600
S PtRh 10% Pt 1.2 2.0 ~ 0.03 1400/1600

Thermo Couple Tolerance

종류 Class for Tolerance
  CLASS 1 CLASS 2 CLASS 3
B Temp.
Tolerance
- = ≥ 600 , ∠ 800℃ 土
4 ℃
- ≥ 600℃, ∠ 1700℃ 土
0.0025 . l t l
≥ 800, ∠ 1700℃
土 0.005 . l t l
RS Temp.
Tolerance
≥0℃, ∠1100℃
土 1℃
≥ 0℃, ∠ 600℃
土 1.5 ℃
 
- ≥ 600℃, ∠ 1600℃
土 0.0025 . l t l
 

Processing

Crucible : Processing

도가니의 제품공정

Platinum Apperatus : Processing

백금장치의 제품공정

Platinum Apperatus: Processing

열전대의 제품공정

Tech.Data - Pt/Pt-ph Alloy Properties

Common Properties

Chemical loss

Pt has relatively less affinity to oxygen compared to other Pt-group metals, but it generates an oxide film by heating for 1 week with oxygen at 520℃. This can be removed by high-temperature heating or hydrogen reduction. In the meanwhile, Rh is converted to RhO by heating with oxygen or air at 600~1000℃ and gradually changed to a mixture of Rh2O3 and Rh. The color of Rh is changed gradually to be black and green at 600~700℃, to be purple at 900~1000℃, and finally be a gray over than 1150℃ due to heat degradation of oxide.

Votalization

It is double for Rh that the vaporizing amount of Pt in the air at 1300℃, 1/3 of Pd, 1/13 of Ir, and 1/100 of Ru, and it becomes decrease by progressing vacuum. The vaporizing amount is very tiny under nitrogen gas and also measurelessly little under the condition of hydrogen. From these, it is proved that Pt is well vaporized with the oxygen. The vaporizing amount of Pt under the oxygen is 5 folds to that of air, and 2 folds for 760mmHg to that of 25 mmHg.

Resistance of PtRh-alloy under the high temperature

Temperature Pt Pt-Rh 10% Pt-Rh 20% Pt-Rh 40%
Microhm
Ohm
Microhm
Ohm
Cir.Mill.Ft
Microhm
Ohm
Cir.Mill.Ft
Microhm
Ohm
Cir.Mill.Ft
20 68 10.8 65 19.2 115 20.8 125 17.4 105
1000 1830 41.5 250 46.6 280 43.3 260 40.0 240
1200 2190 46.5 280 51.4 325 50.0 300 - -
1300 2370 49.0 295 54.1 325 50.0 300 - -
1400 2500 50.5 305 55.3 335 51.6 310 - -

Increase of electric resistivity of adding various elements to pure Pt

순 Pt에 여러 가지 원소를 첨가한 것의 전기 비저항의 증가

Physical Properties

Elementary Symbol Pt Pt-Rh 10% Pt-Rh 20% Pt-Rh 40%
M.P.(℃) 1,769 1,850 1,885 1,963
Density (g/㎤) 21.45 20.1 18.1 12.40
경도(Hv) 45~55 85~95 105~115 95~110
Coefficient of
thermal expansion
(1,000℃)
1.01019 1.01060 1.0099 1.01000
Resistivity (Ωcm)
(1,000℃)
41.6 46.5 43.4 -

Contact Angle to Glass

It is shown in following graphs that the relationship between the borosilicate crown glass of Pt, PtRh, PtAu, and PtRhAu alloy and contact angle. In comparing around 1200℃, the contact angle for Pt is correspond to 20°and PtRh10 is 40°, respectively. In addition, the more density of Pt-Au alloy the larger contact angle.

Glass와의 접촉각

Tech.Data - Caution

Refractory

질화 규소계의 내화물에 의한 침식조직 사진
  • When Pt is used in high temperature, it is recommended high purity Al2O3 or ZrO2 as a refractory. In general, Fe2O3, SiO2, and MgO are contained in Al2O3 and ZrO2, and they generate adhesive Pt-alloyed chemicals and low m.p. chemicals if they are reduced.
  • It must be considered that the structure for the heat expansion and contraction of Pt as well as its adhesive capacity in protecting Pt apparatus from refractory.
  • Since there are ones to react with Pt under the condition of high temperature or melting gas out of new ceramic which preferred as new material in recent, it must be taken care of it.

Glass

PbO Glass에 의한 Pt의 침식 현상 사진
  • There may be reduced and alloyed with Pt when it is exposed to reducing flame that SiO2, Sb2O3, CdO, PbO, and As2O3 which sufficiently contained in Gas. They are Pd, Cd, Sn, Zn, As, Sb, Mg, Si which is to be easily reduced and must be taken care for its hazardous property.
  • When Glass is melted with using Pt Crucible, it shall be used the one which is to be glassed, beforehand melted, without inserting to crucible as its powder condition. Unless the quality decreasing of Pt is to be faster.
  • For the case of Glass relatively high containing PbO and CdO of easily reduced, it must be careful for mixing of metallic Fe and Al. Al has strong reducing power, so it reduces most of metallic oxides except Mg, Ca, and Ba. Therefore, it is not recommended to used Al-featured containers and devices in processing Glass materials and cullet which melted in Pt Crucible.
  • PIn case of melting Glass containing relatively high bubble of CO2 and steam, it is required to consider the structure of apparatus to make weak the bubble.
  • Make sure not to be attached other foreign bodies of paints and oil-and-fats to Glass material, Pt apparatus and refractories. Moreover, it must be maintained clean and covering since it may be influenced by dust and mote in operation.

Environments

Pt corrosion by PbO Glass

  • BE AWARE of hydrogen and carbon generation under the circumstances with organic gas and vapor. It may be also take care for the incomplete combustion heating in gas burner and mixing wood particles into the cullet.
  • Avoid direct contact of hydrogen burner and heavy oil to Pt apparatus.
  • It is strongly recommended to be an oxide that the circumstance and Glass material for melting. SiC heating element may
  • SiC heating element may be consumed or damaged, which sometimes resulted in falling and accident. Give full attention to treat SiC.

Pt environments

Pt재료
  • In using Glass materials including much of Pb, it is recommended to use pure Pt avoiding PtRh-alloy. Rh reacts with Pb selectively, and its longevity become very unstable.
  • It is also recommended to an acid washing before using when Pt must be stored for a long time or it may be contaminated in the middle of storing.

After acid washing, wash it with running water until HCL is disappeared, and use by well-washing with pure water.If oil and fats are attached, it must be removed clear.


  • Do not applying hammering and adding hydrogen salt not to be transformed, damaged, or contaminated when removing Glass attached to Pt apparatus. Pt is not corrosive by hydrofluoric acid. Therefore use hydrofluoric acid if Glass would not be removed.DO NOT use for washing Na2CO3. Na2CO3 may be dissolved, and it may also cause reducing Glass and Pt-alloying.
  • If it is 1200~1300℃ that the Glass melting point before using the Pt apparatus, elevate and maintain its temperature until it is reached to the using temperature. If the temperature is less than 1100℃, treat the heat at 1100℃ and make uniform crystal structure. DO NOT adopting rapid heating and cooling. The structure of Pt will not be changed both by rapid cooling and slow cooling, but rapid cooling may have chance to modify the shpe of container and to cause unexpected result. Moreover, some extents of repetition of heating (expansion) and cooling (contraction) may also cause more growth of crystal and shorter longevity than constant temperature.
  • Use well polished stainless for welding bar, forging bar (metal strut), hammer, and scissors.
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